The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) is a nice software package for the analysis of sequence data. With the development of the Allen Brain Atlas and the desire to do analysis that spans imaging and genetics, I’ve been waiting for the perfect storm (or this is a good thing, so let’s say the perfect sunny day) to teach myself this software and associated methods. I am following documentation from the Broad Institute to write this. Let’s jump right in!
Installation of the Genome Analysis Toolkit
You definitely want to do this on a linux machine. You could use a virtual machine from Windows, or the pathetic cygwin, but I highly recommend just sticking with linux. First, register on the GATK website and download the software. There login system is a little buggy - my credentials kept getting rejected, but then when I opened a new tab, I was logged in. You can extract the software to some nice folder where you have packages. Next, check your version of java. As of the end of 2013, you need java 1.7 for the software to work:
# Check your version of java java -version # You should see something like this java version "1.7.0_25" Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_25-b15) Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 23.25-b01, mixed mode)
If you don’t, then first download JDK version 1.7 from oracle, and follow the installation instructions detailed on the page. I chose to install under /usr/local/java, e.g.,
# From the downloads directory mkdir /usr/local/java tar -zxvf jdk-7u-linux-x64.tar.gz /usr/local/java
If you want to permanently add this version of java to your path (to overwrite your old version, then you can edit your .bash_profile (or in linux mint it is just called .profile in the home folder). You can either add the following to this file, or just type it in a console for a one-time session:
PATH=/usr/local/java/bin:$PATH export $PATH
I didn’t do either of the above, actually, I decided to make an alias (also in my .profile), so I could call this version by typing “java7” and the old version would remain as “java”
# In your bash profile alias java7='/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk/bin/java' # Back on the command line, resource your environment . .profile
And then typing java7 or java will run the correct version.
Testing the Genome Analysis Toolkit installation
Installation just means that you unzipped it to a folder. Go to that folder, and run (using either your java7 alias or just java):
If you see help text, you are golden! If you see this as the first line of an error message:
Exception in thread "main" java.lang.UnsupportedClassVersionError: org/broadinstitute/sting/gatk/CommandLineGATK : Unsupported major.minor version 51.0
you are still using the wrong version of java.
Getting Started with GATK
The raw data files that we are working with are called (FASTQ) and they are the output of, for example, an Ilumina Genome Analyzer. You can read about the format, but largely it’s a text file that lists the nucleotides that are present in the many snippets of DNA cut apart by the machine (my advisor said the typical length is ~35-75 base pairs (bp)), and there are billions. Each snippet of the read has 4 lines: an identifier, the read itself, another identifier/description line, and a quality line. A simple goal of this software is to put these pieces back together, taking into account missing reads, the potential for error, and data quality.
This is where we go from our raw FASTQ files to what are called BAM files, which is a file that has all the snippets put back together, ready for analysis. For my fastq file (sometimes abbreviated .fq) I went into the “resources” directory of GATK, and decided to use “sample_1.fastq.” The initial step of mapping your fastq reads to a reference genome is not done with GATK. So let’s go through the following steps:
The steps involved are:
- Mapping and Marking Duplicates
- Local Realignment Around Indels
- Base Quality Score Recalibration (BQSR)
- Data Compression with ReduceReads (optional)
- Variant discovery: from reads (BAM files) to variants (VCF files)
- Suggested preliminary analyses
Don’t worry, I haven’t a clue what most of these steps are, so we are going to learn together! I have chosen a numbered list instead of bullets because they must be done in this order!
Mapping to a Reference Genome with the Burrows Wheeler Aligner
The basis of many of these analyses is mapping our reads in our fastq file to what is called a “reference genome.” A reference genome is basically an approximated template sequence for a particular species or human subtype (eg, European vs African). If you imagine taking a population of individuals and lining up their sequences, the reference genome might get the most highly agreed upon letter in each position. Even if our fastq snippets don’t have perfect overlap with this reference, the overlap is similar enough so that we can use the reference to correctly order our snippets. For this aim, we are going to be using the Burrows-Wheeler Aligner, which is suggested by GATK.
Download and Install Stuff!
My first strategy was to find different examples of reference genomes and random reads off of the internet, and I quickly learned that this was a bad idea. A more experienced colleague of mine summed it up nicely: “Don’t waste good analyses trash.” Apparently, there is quite a bit of sketchy data out there. My next strategy was to look at the Broad Institute resource bundle.
You basically connect to their FTP server, and have lots of files to choose from. At the highest level is a zip called “tutorial_files.zip.” This has a reference genome, fasta file, and a few .vcf file with known SNPs:
dbsnp_b37_20.vcf dbsnp_b37_20.vcf.idx dedupped_20.bam Homo_sapiens_assembly19.1kg_pilot_indels.vcf human_b37_20.fasta indels_b37_20.vcf indels_b37_20.vcf.idx tutorial_files.zip
I don’t know that much about genetic analyses, but think that the dbsnp.vcf and indels.vcf and Homo_sapiens*.vcf files are all known SNPs, and the .fasta file is our reference. I would also guess that the “20” refers to the chromosome that the reads are for. the dedupped_20.bam file is of reads that have already been processed (mapped to the reference and duplicates removed). Since we aren’t given a file of raw reads (and this preprocessing is important) - I also downloaded the exampleFASTA.fasta.zip in the “exampleFASTA” folder. We can learn preprocessing using this file, and then switch over to the provided bam file, since we haven’t a clue what the exampleFASTA is.
Now, let’s install BWA. Let’s also grab the “samtools,” which stand for “Sequence Alignment/Map” Tools, which is the file format that is used to store large sequences of nucleotides. What isn’t totally obvious is that you also need to install “htslib” https://github.com/samtools/htslib as a part of samtools:
# Install BWA git clone https://github.com/lh3/bwa.git cd bwa make # Get SAM Tools git clone git://github.com/samtools/samtools.git # Get htslib (put in same directory as samtools top folder) git clone git://github.com/samtools/htslib.git cd htslib make # Go back into samtools, then compile cd ../samtools make # If you get this error, it can't find your htslib installation: Makefile:53: ../htslib/htslib.mk: No such file or directory make: *** No rule to make target `../htslib/htslib.mk'. Stop.
You can either put it where it expects it (as instructed above), or see line 52 of the MakeFile and change the path to where you installed it. We also need the Picard tools to sort the reads by coordinate. Download and unzip the software to your directory of choice.
Now let’s start using these tools! First, here is how you can add the directory to any set of tools to your path, so it’s easy to call:
# I usually just cd to the directory cd /path/to/bwa PATH=$PATH:$PWD export PATH
You can also add that to your .profile (or .bash_rc) if you want it to happen at startup.
Index your reference genome
Have you heard of a hash table in computer science? You can think of it like a dictionary in python or your language of choice - it’s a data structure that maps keys to values, or makes it easy to compute an index into some array, and each index is unique. I imagine that we would need to do something like this for the reference genome, because it’s such a beastly file. Which algorithm should we use? The default algorithm is called “IS”:
IS linear-time algorithm for constructing suffix array. It requires 5.37N memory where N is the size of the database. IS is moderately fast, but does not work with database larger than 2GB. IS is the default algorithm due to its simplicity. The current codes for IS algorithm are reimplemented by Yuta Mori.
what we would want for whole genome (the hg19.fa file) is BWT-SW:
bwtsw Algorithm implemented in BWT-SW. This method works with the whole human genome.
This is local sequence alignment! We learned about this in Russ’ BMI 214 class! From the documentation, the BWT-SW algorithm seeds alignments with maximal exact matches (MEMs) and then extends seeds with the affine-gap Smith-Waterman algorithm (SW). Note that if you use whole genome this step can take a couple of hours, and you need 5GB of memory:
# Index your reference genome bwa index -a bwtsw human_b37_20.fasta # If you do it like this, you will use the default IS algorithm: bwa index bwtsw human_b37_20.fasta [bwa_index] Pack FASTA...
This creates a truck ton of files (.amb,.bwt,.ann,.pac,.sa) that I’m thinking are for BWA to use to perform the alignment. LOOK UP THESE FILES. When the above finishes, we now want to make a simple file that lists the indexes. Remember the samtools?:
samtools faidx human_b37_20.fasta
The output of this ends in “*.fai” which I think stands for “fasta index,” and the script doesn’t produce any interesting output in the terminal window. If we look at the file, each line has a contig (“a set of overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA”) name, size, location, basesPerLine, and bytesPerLine. Here is the fa index file for chromosome 20 (human_b37_20.fasta.fai):
My, that’s a tiny file! I also want to show the index for the whole genome (hg19.fa), just to demonstrate that we have many more chromosomes:
Now let’s jump back to the Picard tools and create a sequence dictionary, “human_b37_20.fasta.dict” by running the following:
java -jar CreateSequenceDictionary.jar \ REFERENCE=human_b37_20.fasta \ OUTPUT=human_b37_20.dict
This produces some job output to the screen as well. I can imagine if I were setting this up in a massive processing pipeline, I would want to direct all this screen output to some job file, for checking in the case of error. Here is a snapshot of what the dictionary looks like:
@HD VN:1.4 SO:unsorted @SQ SN:20 LN:20000000 UR:file:/home/vanessa/Packages/bwa/data/test/human_b37_20.fasta M5:26585f45bc49d1acf5efd030c442ef0f
@HD specifies the header line. VN is the version. SO means “sorting order.”
@SQ specifies the start of the sequence dictionary. SN is the reference sequence name (20), and LN is the reference sequence length. UR is the URI of the sequence, which is a uniform resource identifier, which is like a unique ID that can be used for many kinds of web resources. Here is the whole genome dictionary (just to compare):
(Finally) Mapping to a Reference Genome with the Burrows Wheeler Aligner
Now let’s use BWA to create our SAM, or Sequence Alignment/Map file. I highly stress to read the README.md file, which tells us about the different algorithms that can be used to match data to a reference genome (BWA-backtrack, BWA-SM, and BWA-MEM). BWA-MEM is recommended as the latest for high quality queries. For this example, our reference is called “human_b37_20.fasta.”
# Generate a SAM file containing aligned reads - 1 file bwa mem -M -R '@RG\tID:exampleFASTA\tSM:sample1' human_b37_20.fasta exampleFASTA.fasta > aligned_reads.sam
The “-R” argument is the “read group,” for more information seem the SAM file spec: http://samtools.sourceforge.net/SAMv1.pdf. The only required fields seem to be the ID and SM (sample). If you had more than one reads file, each would need a unique ID. Thanks to my friend “Boots” for pointing this out to me :)
If you don’t specify the read string, then your SAM file won’t have read group information, and you will need to add this later (I include this step in the walkthrough below.) I would recommend doing it correctly from the start, but if you don’t, I go over the “fix it” step later.
# Convert to BAM, sort and mark duplicates java -jar SortSam.jar \ INPUT=aligned_reads.sam \ OUTPUT=sorted_reads.bam \ SORT_ORDER=coordinate
This is the first step that appears to produce a compiled file (e.g., I can no longer open something coherent in my text editor). As a reminder, we started with a bunch of unordered reads, and we first aligned them to a reference genome, and then we sorted them based on their coordinate. Are we done with preprocessing? Not quite yet! During sequencing, the same DNA molecule can be sequenced multiple times, meaning that we could have duplicates. This doesn’t do much to help us, so let’s get rid of these duplicates. This process is called “dedupping.”
# Create "dedup_reads.bam" file - same as before, but without duplicates java -jar MarkDuplicates.jar \ INPUT=sorted_reads.bam \ OUTPUT=dedup_reads.bam \ M=metrics.txt
What in the world is in the metrics file? It looks like a job file that keeps a log of the duplicates. Finally, as a last step in pre-preprocessing, we need to create an index file for the BAM file:
java -jar BuildBamIndex.jar \ INPUT=dedup_reads.bam
We are now done with pre-preprocessing!
Local Realignment Around Indels
In neuroimaging analysis, dealing with noise is like brushing your teeth in the morning. The same seems to be true for sequence alignment. An indel is a term that we use to describe either an insertion or deletion. When we do this initial mapping, a read that aligns with the edge of an indel can look like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but it’s just noise. This realignment procedure aims to correct these mapping artifacts. This step is basically running Smith-Waterman over the entirety of an aggregated BAM file, however the documentation notes that if you have a super large number of BAM files, you can run the script in “-knownsOnly” mode, which will clean up sites known in dbSNP or 1000 genomes. You might also want to do this if you are worried about false positives (eg, tagging a SNP as noise when it’s not!). Most of an individual’s known indels will be found here, and of course any novel sites will not be cleaned. If your lab has a list of known indel sites (called “gold_indels.vcf”) you can specify for GATK to use it (see below), or what I did is use the .vcf files provided in the tutorial zip. This is also where we want to use their dedupped_20.bam, otherwise you get an error message about having a file with a mismatched number of bases and qualities. Don’t forget to first index the bam file:
java -jar BuildBamIndex.jar \ INPUT=dedupped_20.bam
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T RealignerTargetCreator \ # the analysis type -R human_b37_20.fasta \ # our reference sequence -I dedupped_20.bam \ # input sequence alignment map file -known dbsnp_b37_20.vcf \ # known indel sites -known Homo_sapiens_assembly19.1kg_pilot_indels.vcf \ -known indels_b37_20.vcf -o target_intervals.list
At this point, if you don’t have the read group specified, the GATK will give you this error:
...SAM/BAM file dedup_reads.bam is malformed: SAM file doesn't have any read groups defined in the header.
Oops. This is where not specifying the read group information when I first use bwa came back to bite me in the butt! If you do have this read information, skip the next two steps. If not, let’s see if we can fix this… thank goodness picard has a nice little script to do just that:
java -jar AddOrReplaceReadGroups.jar \ INPUT=dedup_reads.bam \ OUTPUT=addrg_reads.bam \ RGID=group1 RGLB=lib1 RGPL=illumina RGPU=unit1 RGSM=sample1
I wasn’t entirely sure where to get this kind of information for a random fq file that I downloaded. I’m guessing it would be in the documentation from wherever the data is sequenced. So, I just used the dummy information above. I then created a fixed BAM index file:
java -jar BuildBamIndex \ INPUT=addrg_reads.bam
So now we have another bam index file, with the same name but appended with “bai.” Now, you would try the RealignerTargerCreator command from above once more, but with the addrg_reads.bam file.
I’ll admit to you that I’ve gone through this sequence of steps muliple times, and finally when I didn’t get an error message on this step I wanted to dance! And guess what? It’s tracking your every move too… sent to Amazon S3!
INFO 15:46:30,009 GATKRunReport - Uploaded run statistics report to AWS S3
Our output is a list of intervals that are deemed to need realignment, spit out in a text file called “target_intervals.list.”
Now we should take this list… and do the realignments! Let’s compare to the command above to better familiarize with GATK. The -T argument obviously is specifying the analysis type, R is always going to have our reference, I the input, and the rest are self explanatory:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar -T IndelRealigner -R human_b37_20.fasta -I dedupped_20.bam -targetIntervals target_intervals.list -known dbsnp_b37_20.vcf -known Homo_sapiens_assembly19.1kg_pilot_indels.vcf -known indels_b37_20.vcf -o realigned_reads.bam
The output of this step is “realigned_reads.bam,” or a file similar to the original dedup_reads.bam, but cleaned up! Now we can move on to the next step.
Base Quality Score Recalibration (BSQR)
As we noted earlier, one of the lines (for each read) in these sequence files (both the raw and BAM/SAM files) is an indicator of the quality of the read. This is a super important metric, and unfortunately it is subject to error as well. We are going to use methods from machine learning to make it so that these quality scores are closer to representing the probability of an error in matching to our reference genome. For more details, see here: http://www.broadinstitute.org/gatk/guide/article?id=44. I recommend scrolling down to the plots to see the “before” and “after” shots of the quality score distribution. First we are going to figure out what patterns of covariation we have in our sequence dataset:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T BaseRecalibrator \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -I realigned_reads.bam \ -L 20 \ -knownSites dbsnp_b37_20.vcf -knownSites Homo_sapiens_assembly19.1kg_pilot_indels.vcf -knownSites indels_b37_20.vcf -o recal_data.grp
This is an initial model, and we then create a secondary model that looks for remaining covariation after recalibration:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T BaseRecalibrator \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -I realigned_reads.bam \ -L 20 \ -knownSites dbsnp_b37_20.vcf -knownSites Homo_sapiens_assembly19.1kg_pilot_indels.vcf -knownSites indels_b37_20.vcf -BQSR recal_data.grp \ -o post_recal_data.grp
The -BQSR points GATK to our previously-made file with the recalibration data. To make these analyses a little less “black box,” let’s look at the base quantities before and after recalibration:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T AnalyzeCovariates \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -L 20 \ -before recal_data.grp \ -after post_recal_data.grp \ -plots recalibration_plots.pdf
This didn’t work the first time I tried it - I got an error about the RScript. I figured out that I was missing some libraries in R, so here is how to install them. I had to download an older version of gplots from the archive: http://cran.r-project.org/src/contrib/Archive/gplots/
install.packages('ggplot2') install.packages('gtools') install.packages('gdata') install.packages('caTools') install.packages('reshape') install.packages('gplots_2.8.0.tar.gz',repos=NULL, type="source") install.packages('gsalib')
If installing those doesn’t work for you, try running the script on your own to debug:
If you run the AnalyzeCovariates with the flag “-l DEBUG” you can see where the output .csv file is put, which you would need for the R script. I’m glad that it finally worked for me and I didn’t have to do that! My plots generally looked like this, which looked ok, so I moved on to applying the recalibration to my bam file:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T PrintReads \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -I realigned_reads.bam \ -L 20 \ -BQSR recal_data.table \ -o recal_reads.bam
This “recal_reads.bam” file now has quality scores that are more accurate. It looks like the old ones get written over, but if you are an anxious personality type and don’t want to lose them, use the “-emit-original-quals” flag to keep them in the file with the tag “OQ.” We are now done with recalibration, and can move on to variant discovery! Note that if you have large data, you might want to use the “ReduceRead” tool to compress your data before moving forward:
What does variant discovery mean? It means finding sites in your reads (the bam file) where the genome is different from the reference, and suck out those sites to see what the difference is. This process contains two steps:
- variant calling (designed to maximize sensitivity, or the true positive rate),
- variant quality score recalibration (VQSR, filters to improve specificity, true negative rate).
Before we run this: a few notes. The default mode is called “DISCOVERY,” and this means we choose the most probable alleles in the data. If you are only interested in a certain set of alleles, change that arg to “GENOTYPE_GIVEN_ALLELES” and then pass a .vcf file with the “-alleles” argument. I don’t have a good sense for the confidence thresholds, so I’m going to use the default suggested in the documentation:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T HaplotypeCaller \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -I recal_reads.bam \ # reduced or not -L 20 \ --genotyping_mode DISCOVERY \ -stand_emit_conf 10 \ -stand_call_conf 30 \ -o raw_variants.vcf
When I was running the above, I saw this message:
WARN 13:25:31,915 DiploidExactAFCalc - this tool is currently set to genotype at most 6 alternate alleles in a given context, but the context at 20:13967957 has 8 alternate alleles so only the top alleles will be used; see the --max_alternate_alleles argument
Despite the enormous runtime of the above command, I decided to run it again, using the max_alternate_alleles argument. That would give me two files to work with, raw_variants.vcf, and raw_variants_maxaa.vcf.
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T HaplotypeCaller \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -I recal_reads.bam \ # reduced or not -L 20 \ --genotyping_mode DISCOVERY \ -max_alternative_alleles -stand_emit_conf 10 \ -stand_call_conf 30 \ -o raw_variants_maxaa.vcf \
Both of these files have alleles (SNPs, insertions, and deleltions) from our sequence that are different from the reference genome. Let’s take a look! I always recommend using vim to look at these - it doesn’t freak out with the big file size like gedit does:
As a reminder, we just maximized sensitivity, meaning that we aren’t going to miss real variants. However, in that nice little .vcf file, we probably have some false positives too, and need to do some filtering to reduce that number of false positives. For the below, I returned to the Broad Institute resource bundle, and downloaded (and unzipped) the following files into a “ref” folder:
1000G_omni2.5.b37.vcf 1000G_omni2.5.b37.vcf.idx dbsnp_b37_20.vcf dbsnp_b37_20.vcf.idx hapmap_3.3.b37.vcf hapmap_3.3.b37.vcf.idx Mills_and_1000G_gold_standard.indels.b37.vcf Mills_and_1000G_gold_standard.indels.b37.vcf.idx
I downloaded the index files as well, but you could also make them like we did earlier. This is one of those “I’m not entirely sure if I’m doing the right thing, but I think so,” things, after reading the documentation here.
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T VariantRecalibrator \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -input raw_variants.vcf \ -resource:hapmap,known=false,training=true,truth=true,prior=15.0 hapmap_3.3.b37.vcf \ -resource:omni,known=false,training=true,truth=true,prior=12.0 1000G_omni2.5.b37.vcf \ -resource:1000G,known=false,training=true,truth=false,prior=10.0 Mills_and_1000G_gold_standard.indels.b37.vcf \ -resource:dbsnp,known=true,training=false,truth=false,prior=2.0 dbsnp_b37_20.vcf \ -an DP \ -an QD \ -an FS \ -an MQRankSum \ -an ReadPosRankSum \ -mode SNP \ -tranche 100.0 -tranche 99.9 -tranche 99.0 -tranche 90.0 \ -recalFile recalibrate_SNP.recal \ # recalibration report with data -tranchesFile recalibrate_SNP.tranches \ # contains quality score thresholds -rscriptFile recalibrate_SNP_plots.R
Then apply the recalibration:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T ApplyRecalibration \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -input raw_variants.vcf \ -mode SNP \ --ts_filter_level 99.0 \ -recalFile recalibrate_SNP.recal \ -tranchesFile recalibrate_SNP.tranches \ -o recalibrated_snps_raw_indels.vcf
This didn’t actually work for me, and those files are indeed the ones they suggest using. I think it’s because my file is too small, so instead I’m going to apply hard filters, first to my SNPs, and then to the indels:
# This is for the SNPs java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T SelectVariants \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -V raw_variants.vcf \ -L 20 \ -selectType SNP \ -o raw_snps.vcf
That made a file with SNPs from the original file of raw variants, and now we need to apply a manual filter. Here I am again going to use the suggested values:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T VariantFiltration \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -V raw_snps.vcf \ --filterExpression "QD < 2.0 || FS > 60.0 || MQ < 40.0 || HaplotypeScore > 13.0 || MappingQualityRankSum < -12.5 || ReadPosRankSum < -8.0" \ --filterName "vanessa_snp_filter" \ -o filtered_snps.vcf
Now if we look at the filtered_snps.vcf file, we can see PASS labels for the ones that passed the filter, and if it didn’t pass, it says “vanessa_snp_filter.” Next, let’s do the same for the indels (insertions and deletions) from the call set. You’ll notice that we are again using the “SelectVariants” option, but instead of “SNP” for the select type, we are choosing “INDEL”:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T SelectVariants \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -V raw_HC_variants.vcf \ -L 20 \ -selectType INDEL \ -o raw_indels.vcf
Now we have the file “raw_indels.vcf” that just has the insertions and deletions from the original file of raw variants. Let’s again apply manual filters:
java -jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar \ -T VariantFiltration \ -R human_b37_20.fasta \ -V raw_indels.vcf \ --filterExpression "QD < 2.0 || FS > 200.0 || ReadPosRankSum < -20.0" \ --filterName "vanessa_indel_filter" \ -o filtered_indels.vcf
We are done filtering! At this point it’s time for preliminary analysis, and next comes analysis. Since this post is quite a bit long, I’m going to end it here, and will do preliminary analysis in a second post.
Other Resource for Reference Genomes
Other than the GATK Resource Bundle, available via FTP, we can download reference genomes from either Ensemble or the UCSC Genome Browser. From the USCS Genome Browser, if you click on Human –> Full Data Set, and then scroll down, you will see many links for zipped files that end in “fa.” It looks like there are multiple choices, and obviously you would choose based on your particular data. To test, I chose the hg19 2bit file, and I found this application for converting it to fa, as recommended by some colleagues. In the case that you want whole genome (using the hg19.fa file) here is how to convert 2bit to fa:
chmod u+x twoBitToFa ./twoBitToFa hg19.2bit hg19.fa
That’s all for today!